Human life is exposed to many risks, which may result in heavy financial losses. Insurance is one of the devices by which risks may be reduced or eliminated in exchange for premium. ―Insurance is a contract in which a sum of money is paid by the assured in consideration of the insurer's incurring the risk of paying larger sum upon a given contingency. In its legal aspects it is a contract whereby one person agrees to indemnify another against a loss which may happen or to pay a sum of money to him on the occurring of a particular event.
Indemnity means security, protection and compensation given against damage, loss or injury. According to the principle of indemnity, an insurance contract is signed only for getting protection against unpredicted financial losses arising due to future uncertainties. Insurance contract is not made for making profit else its sole purpose is to give compensation in case of any damage or loss. In an insurance contract, the amount of compensations paid is in proportion to the incurred losses. The amount of compensations is limited to the amount assured or the actual losses, whichever is less. The compensation must not be less or more than the actual damage. Compensation is not paid if the specified loss does not happen due to a particular reason during a specific time period. Thus, insurance is only for giving protection against losses and not for making profit. However, in case of life insurance, the principle of indemnity does not apply because the value of human life cannot be measured in terms of money.
Motor Vehicles (Third-Party Risks and Compensation) Act.
An Act to provide against third-party risks arising out of the use of motor vehicles and for the payment of compensation in respect of death or bodily injury arising out of the use of motor vehicles and for matters incidental thereto.
The insurance of motor vehicles against damage is not made compulsory, but the insurance of third party liability arising out of the use of motor vehicles in public places is made compulsory. No motor vehicle can ply in a public place without such insurance.
It is necessary to have knowledge of Motor Vehicles Act passed in 1939 and amended in 1988. In the old days, many of the pedestrians who were knocked down by motor vehicles and who were killed or injured, did not get any compensation because the motorists did not have the resources to pay the compensation and were also not insured. In order to safeguard the interests of pedestrians, therefore, the Motor Vehicles Act, 1939, introduced compulsory insurance. The insurance of motor vehicles against damage is not made compulsory, but the insurance of third party liability arising out of the use of motor vehicles in public places is made compulsory. No motor vehicle can ply in a public place without such insurance.
The liabilities which require compulsory insurance are as follows:
(a) any liability incurred by the insured in respect of death or bodily injury of any person including owner of the goods or his authorized representative carried in the carriage.
(b) liability incurred in respect of damage to any property of a third party;
(c) liability incurred in respect of death or bodily injury of any passenger of a public service vehicle;
(d) liability arising under Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 in respect of death or bodily injury of:
(i) paid driver of the vehicle;
(ii) conductor, or ticket examiner (Public Service Vehicles);
(iii) workers, carried in a goods vehicle;
(e) liability in respect of death or bodily injury of passengers who are carried for hire or reward or by reason of or in pursuance of contract of employment. The policy of insurance should cover the liability incurred in respect of any one accident as follows.
The liability in respect of death of or bodily injury to any passenger of a public service vehicle in a public place, the amount of liability incurred is unlimited.